Mir Taqi Mir
Khuda-e-SukhanMir Taqi Mir (Urdu: میر تقی میر) (February born 1722 – died September 21, 1810), whose original name was Syed Amanullah Meer Taqi and takhallus (pen name) was Mir (sometimes also spelt as Meer Taqi Meer), was the leading Urdu poet of the 18th century, and one of the pioneers who gave shape to the Urdu language itself. He was one of the principal poets of the Delhi School of the Urdu ghazal and remains arguably the foremost name in Urdu poetry often remembered as Khuda-e-Sukhan (god of poetry).
Mir was the only son of a Sufi saint, Mir Muttaqi. When Mir was a little child, his father looking at his face used to say which is this fire burning within your heart that is reflecting on your face. Sufis are lovers of God and so he thought that it was the fire of love for Allah. Living in a atmosphere of sufism at a very young age had profound effect on Meer. He did not have much desires for worldly things.
While on his death bed, his father instructed Meer to “Adopt the path of love. A life without love is an ordeal and losing one’s heart in love is the real art. Though this path is riddled with difficulties, love is what drives the world.” This is a philosophy reflected by Meer in most of his works.
After his father’s death, at the age of 11 years, he was abandoned by the people in whose care he had been left. His elder step-brother also treated him badly. Meer left Agra for Delhi in search of livelihood . Samsamudaula gave him a scholarship of one rupee per day, but this did not continue for long because in 1739, Nadir Shah attacked Delhi in which Samsamudaula was killed. At that time Meer was in Agra. After staying in Agra for few days, Meer again went to Delhi. In Delhi, he stayed in the home of Khan Arzoo, who was the maternal uncle of Meer’s step-brother Hafiz Muhammad Hasan. Muhammad Hassan wrote a letter to his uncle criticizing Meer. Soon Meer was homeless and jobless and roaming in the streets aimlessly.
After Nadir Shah’s carnage there was no charm left in Delhi for the poets, many of them moved to Lucknow. Meer came to Lucknow in 1783; Nawab Asafaddaula fixed him Rs. 200 a month stipend.
His early experiences in life and shortness of money though had made a permanent change in his nature and even in the peaceful atmosphere of Lucknow he lived a terrible life. Simple things used to make him upset, many times he walked out of the Nawab’s court. In 1810 he died in Lucknow.
Born in Agra, India (called Akbarabad at the time), ruled by the Mughals at the time. He left for Delhi, at the age of 11, following his father’s death. His philosophy of life was formed primarily from his father, whose emphasis on the importance of love and the value of compassion remained with him through his life and imbued his poetry. At Delhi, he finished his education and joined a group of nobility as a courtier-poet. He lived much of his life in Mughal Delhi. Kuchha Chelan, located in famous grain market Khari Baoli, in Old Delhi was his address at that time. However, after Ahmad Shah Abdali‘s sack of Delhi each year starting 1748, he eventually moved to the court of Asaf-ud-Daulah in Lucknow, at the king’s invitation. Distressed to witness the plundering of his beloved Delhi, he gave vent to his feelings through some of his couplets.
“Kya bood-o-bash poochhe ho Purab ke sakino
hum ko gharib jaan ke hans hans pukar ke
Dilli jo aik shehar tha aalam mein intekhaab
Rehte the muntakhib hi jahan rozgaar ke
Jisko falak ne loot ke viraan kar diya
Hum rahnay walay hain ussi ujray dayar ke“
Mir migrated to Lucknow in 1782 and remained there for the remainder of his life. He died, of a purgative overdose, on Friday, 21 September 1810. Literary life
His complete works, Kulliaat, consist of six Diwans containing 13,585 couplets, comprising all kinds of poetic forms.
Mir’s literary reputation is anchored on his ghazals. Mir lived at a time when Urdu language and poetry was at a formative stage – and Mir’s instinctive aesthetic sense helped him strike a balance between the indigenous expression and new enrichment coming in from Persian imagery and idiom, to constitute the new elite language known as Rekhta orHindui. Basing his language on his native Hindustani, he leavened it with a sprinkling of Persian diction and phraseology, and created a poetic language at once simple, natural and elegant, which was to guide generations of future poets.
After his move to Lucknow, his beloved daughter died, followed by his son (either Mir Faiz Ali or Mir Kallu Arsh), and then his wife.This, together with other earlier setbacks (including his traumatic stages in Delhi) lends a strong pathos to much of his writing – and indeed Mir is noted for his poetry of pathos and melancholy.
“Mir ke deen-o-mazhab ka, poonchte kya ho unne to
What can I tell you about Mir’s faith or belief ?
What Mir was practicing was probably the “Malamati” or “Blameworthy” aspect of the Sufi tradition. Using this technique, a person ascribes to oneself an unconventional aspect of a person or society, and then plays out its results, either in action or in verse. He was a prolific writer. His complete works, Kulliaat, consist of 6 dewans, containing 13,585 couplets comprising all kinds of poetic forms: ghazal, masnavi, qasida, rubai, mustezaad, satire, etc.Mir vs Mirza Ghalib
Mir’s famous contemporary, also an Urdu poet of no inconsiderable repute, was Mirza Rafi Sauda. Mir Taqi Mir was often compared with the later day Urdu poet, Mirza Ghalib. Lovers of Urdu poetry often debate Mir’s supremacy over Ghalib or vice versa. It may be noted that Ghalib himself acknowledged, through some of his couplets, that Mir was indeed a genius who deserved respect. Here are two couplets by Mirza Ghalib on this matter.
Reekhtay kay tumhi ustaad nahi ho Ghalib
You are not the only master of Urdu, Ghalib
Ghalib apna yeh aqeeda hai baqaul-e-Nasikh
Ghalib! Its my belief in the words of Nasikh*,
*Shaikh Imam Bakhsh Nasikh of Lucknow, a disciple of Mir.
- “Nukat-us-Shura” Description about Urdu poets of his time
- “Faiz-e-Mir” Collection of five stories about beggars, said to have been written for the education of his son Mir Faiz Ali.
- “Zikr-e-Mir” Autobiography written in Persian language.
- “Kulliyat-e-Farsi” Collection of poems in Persian language
- “Kulliyat-e-Mir” Collection of Urdu poetry consisting of six diwans (volumes).
Some of his impeccable couplets are:
Dikhaai diye yun ke bekhud kiya
(She appeared in such a way that I lost myself
Looked as if rendered me unconcious
Gor kis dil jale ki hai ye falak
(What heart-sick sufferer’s misery is the sky?
Ashk aankh mein kab nahi aata
(From my eye, when doesn’t a tear fall
Bekhudi le gai kahaan humko
(Where has selflessness taken me
Ibtidaa-e-ishq hai rotaa hai kyaa
(Its the beginning of Love, why do you wail
Likhte ruqaa, likh gae daftar
(Started with a scroll, ended up with a record
Deedni hai shikasgi dil ki
(Worth-watching is my heart’s siege
Baad marne ke meri qabr pe aaya wo ‘Mir’
(O Mir, She came to my grave after i’d died